Saddam Hussein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Saddam” and “Saddam Hussain” redirect here. For other uses, see Saddam (disambiguation) and Saddam Hussain (disambiguation).
This is an Arabic name; the family name is al-Tikriti.
Saddam Hussein
صدام حسين
Saddam Hussein in 1998.png

Saddam Hussein in 1998
5th President of Iraq
In office
16 July 1979 – 9 April 2003
Prime Minister
Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded by Coalition Provisional Authority
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council of Iraq
In office
16 July 1979 – 9 April 2003
Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded by Position abolished
57th and 61st Prime Minister of Iraq
In office
29 May 1994 – 9 April 2003
President Himself
Preceded by Ahmad Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai
Succeeded by Mohammad Bahr al-Ulloum (as Acting President of the Governing Council of Iraq)
In office
16 July 1979 – 23 March 1991
President Himself
Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded by Sa’dun Hammadi
Secretary of the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party
In office
January 1992 – 30 December 2006
Preceded by Michel Aflaq
Succeeded by Position vacant
Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Iraqi Regional Branch
In office
16 July 1979 – 30 December 2006
National Secretary Michel Aflaq (until 1989)
Himself (from 1989)
Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded by Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri
In office
February 1964 – October 1966
Preceded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Member of the Regional Command of the Iraqi Regional Branch
In office
February 1964 – 9 April 2003
Personal details
Born Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti
28 April 1937
Al-Awja, Saladin Province, Iraq
Died 30 December 2006 (aged 69)
Kadhimiya, Baghdad, Iraq
Nationality Iraqi
Political party Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party (1957–1966)
Baghdad-based Ba’ath Party
Other political
National Progressive Front
Spouse(s) Sajida Talfah
Samira Shahbandar
Children Uday Hussein
Qusay Hussein
Raghad Hussein
Rana Hussein
Hala Hussein
Religion Sunni Islam
Military service
Allegiance Iraq
Service/branch Iraqi Armed Forces
Rank Marshal

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي Ṣaddām Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Maǧīd al-Tikrītī;[note 1] 28 April 1937[note 2] – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.[6] A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba’ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba’ath Party—which espoused Ba’athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.

As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflict between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and other industries. The state-owned banks were put under his control, leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and UN sanctions.[7] Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatuses of government as oil money helped Iraq’s economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were mostly filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.

Saddam formally rose to power in 1979, although he had been the de facto head of Iraq for several years prior. He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi’a and Kurdish movements, seeking to overthrow the government or gain independence,[8] and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War. Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam for his opposition to the United States and for attacking Israel[9][10]—he was widely condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship. The total number of Iraqis killed by the security services of Saddam’s government in various purges and genocides is unknown, but the lowest estimate is 250,000.

In 2003, a coalition led by the U.S. invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda. Saddam’s Ba’ath party was disbanded and elections were held. Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government. On 5 November 2006, Saddam was convicted of charges of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi’ites, and was sentenced to death by hanging. His execution was carried out on 30 December


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